Some time ago I was digging in some opensource C++ graphics library and found
Matrix4 class derived from some generic
with many virtual functions,
debugOutput() being among them. I decided
to write this post to show that it can be done better than that.
This is basically the stepping stone of Object Oriented Programming. You have some well-defined base class and subclasses are (re)implementing the virtual functions. In many cases you don’t know about the implementation and just work with reference to the base interface. However, this comes with performance penalty — each function call must be dispatched through a virtual table. While this might not be an issue in conventional applications, it is much more noticeable in tight game loops running at 60 FPS.
Magnum tries very hard to not overuse dynamic polymorphism. It is needed only for plugins and scene graph internals. These two cases are implemented with Herb Sutter suggestions on virtuality in mind, which allows many performance and usability improvements. In particular, Magnum employs this approach:
- No public-facing
virtualmethods — all virtual methods are called through public non-virtual proxy functions, which do additional checks, conversions and assertions. It means that the implementation contains only the code what matters, free of any boilerplate and redundant stuff or calls to parent implementation (which are forgotten more often than not).
- Having non-virtual public method allows for greater flexibility in derived classes — no issues with covariant return types or conflicting parameters and the awesome ability to inline the whole function call. Good implementation of public method in derived class can even remove the need for virtual call completely, without depending on compiler optimization promises.
- If there is no need to call
deleteon base class, the base doesn’t even need virtual destructor, only a protected one. If the destructor is empty, it’s then possible to make the type
constexpr, allowing for even more optimizations.
You can look into Magnum sources for real usage, files Magnum/Text/AbstractFont.h and Magnum/Text/AbstractFont.cpp show consistency checks and conversions which would otherwise need to be done redundantly in each and every implementation.
Unfortunately, in many statically typed languages, dynamic polymorphism is the only real option. If you define two classes with similar interface, you can easily swap one for another by just changing the type of variable, but that’s all you can do — it’s not possible to use the other type as parameter into the same function.
With C++’s templating abilities it’s possible to define generic functions taking any suitable type. In dynamically typed languages (such as Python) this is known as duck typing, but with considerable runtime penalties. In C++ the performance of templated code is no different from other native code (apart from possible compilation time / binary size increases, but that’s another story).
All classes with similar use cases in Magnum are statically polymorphic. It means that you can for example swap transformation representation from DualQuaternion to Matrix4, easily switch to different platform toolkit (replace Platform::GlfwApplication with Platform::Sdl2Application) or use faster in-memory image representation on modern graphics cards (GL::BufferImage2D instead of Image2D). In most cases you can do that without any additional changes to method calls and everything will just work.
Not everything can be conveniently done without sublcassing. To avoid having virtual destructor, the base destructor is made protected (as is the case with GL::AbstractFramebuffer and other classes which are not meant to be instantiated directly). Also, it’s possible to cheat a little with primitive types for math structures, as only the base class contains the actual data and the destructors in subclasses are basically a no-op (for example Math::Color4, derived from Math::Vector4, which is derived from Math::Vector). In this case not calling destructors of derived classes won’t cause any harm and no memory will be leaked.
Making (statically) polymorphic interface for Platform namespace was the hardest thing — windowing toolkits support very diverse feature set, which is most noticeable in event handlers. It means that it’s not possible to pass the values as separate function parameters, because switching to another toolkit with different event properties would be a nightmare. A structure is passed instead, which then has separate getters for all the properties.
From user’s point-of-view the usage is the same as if these classes were implemented using dynamic polymorphism, but internally the code is much faster thanks to inlining and no need for virtual dispatch or conversion of parameters to implementation-specific values. Moreover this is the way how STL is designed.
Thanks to operator overloading in C++ it is possible to use an operator instead
of implementing a virtual function. The essential example is equality
comparison and debug output (various
functions). The Utility::Debug class uses, similarly to STL and Qt’s
operator<< to print values on debug output.